Thomas Hoenig: How might we better assess capital adequacy? Experience suggests that to be useful, a capital rule must be simple, understandable and enforceable. It should reflect the firm’s ability to absorb loss in good times and in crisis. It should be one that the public and shareholders can understand, that directors can monitor, that management cannot easily game, and that bank supervisors can enforce. An effective capital rule should result in a bank having capital that approximates what the market would require without the safety net in place. The measure that best achieves these goals is what I have been calling the tangible equity to tangible assets ratio. Tangible equity is simply equity without add-ons such as good will, minority interests, deferred taxes or other accounting entries that disappear in a crisis. Tangible assets include all assets less the intangibles.  This tangible capital measure does not remove the complexities from the balance sheet. It does not attempt to differentiate risks among assets. It does not tier the measure into any number of refined levels. There is no governmental ex-ante endorsement of risk assets or capital allocations. Instead, this tangible capital measure is a demanding minimum capital requirement within which management must allocate resources within the overall capital constraint. This simple measure accepts that firms quickly shift their allocation of assets to take advantage of changing risks and rewards. This simpler but fundamentally stronger measure reflects in clear terms the losses that a bank can absorb before it fails and regardless of how risks shift. It provides a consistent and comparable measure across firms.